Monoculture is an agricultural term referring to the practice of growing only one species in a field at a time, but the term has also been adopted to computing. Identical computers that run identical software are an example of an algorithmic monoculture. Monocultures tend to be vulnerable because all their elements (be they plants or computers) share the same vulnerabilities and other weaknesses.

While a strict definition of algorithmic monoculture may require identical computers and software, looser definitions are also possible. Any kind idea, design concept or piece of software that is so dominant that it is difficult to envision alternatives may form a monoculture.

Technological monocultures can be counteracted with technological diversity.